Very Small Power Producer (VSPP)

Thailand's Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) regulations were approved by Cabinet in 2002.

These regulations allow small community-owned or small entrepreneur-owned renewable energy generation to connect to the grid and sell excess electricity to utilities. In December, 2006 the Thai government announced important changes in VSPP regulations that allow each generator to export up to 10 MW to the grid, and offer feed-in tariff subsidies for renewable electricity production. The VSPP program is also now open to efficient fossil-fuel Combined Heat and Power (CHP).

Palang Thai helped draft Thailand's original VSPP original regulations, and has been active in the evolution of the VSPP program over the years. We remain surprised at how vigorously industry has responded. As of September 2005, 16 MW were installed. Fast forward to March 2012, there's now 1177 MW of renewable energy VSPP online and another 4,127 MW have signed power purchase agreements (PPAs).

Palang Thai works to:

  • Advocate for fair, safe, and economical grid-interconnection requirements;
  • Identify and work to resolve technical and contractual barriers to VSPPs;
  • Monitor implementation of the VSPP program in Thailand;
  • Help the interested public identify VSPP opportunities;
  • Work with decision makers in other countries to implement similar policies

VSPP links and downloads: (See more at:

Institutional Aikido: Bringing Power to the People of Thailand (PDF, 560 kB). A case study published by the Democracy Center on the origins of the VSPP program and lessons for clean energy advocacy. September 2012 

Clarifying the Thailand solar feed-in tariff situation. (PDF, 175 kB). 2-page summary that clarifies subsidy adder situation for VSPP and SPP programs. 4 February 2011. Chris Greacen

Feed-in tariffs and south-south policy/technology transfer: The evolution and implementation of Very Small Power Producer (VSPP/SPP) Regulations in Thailand and Tanzania. (PPT, 14.4 MB). Chris Greacen. Energy and Development Workshop Monterey Institute of International Studies Irvine Auditorium, McCone Hall May 8, 2010.

Trip Report: Technical Visit of the Delegation from the United Republic of Tanzania to Thailand regarding Thailand's Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) program (DOC, 1.1 MB). Chris Greacen. Thailand March 13 - 20, 2010.

Selling renewable energy profitably to the grid: The evolution and results of Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) Regulations in Thailand and Tanzania (PPT, 3 MB). 30 September 2009. Mekong Regional Energy Conference, Intercontinental Hotel, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Chris Greacen. (Same presentation also delivered 27 Oct 2009 at the "Powering the 21st Century Cambodia: Rethinking Cambodia's Energy Future Workshop Phnom Penh Hotel, Phnom Penh.

Towards Light Handed Regulations for Small Power Producers (SPP) in Tanzania and Thailand (PPT, 7 MB). 24 June 2009. The Infrastructure Regulation Thematic Group and the PPP-Global Expert Team, in collaboration with the AFR SDN Energy Team, World Bank Washington, D.C. 24 June 2009. Chris Greacen.

Guidelines for Developers of Small Power Projects (SPP) in Tanzania: Main features of a draft for discussion. (PPT, 3.5 MB). 25 February 2009. Chris Greacen. New Africa Hotel, Tanzania.

Evolution of Thailand's Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) regulations. (PPT 3.4 MB) Presented at Humboldt State University, Arcata CA. 11 September, 2008. By Chris Greacen

Solar, wind, hydro, CHP in Thailand: technology, cost, potential, applications (PPT, 5.7 MB) 25 Nov, 2007. Citizen's meeting on Power Sector Reform, Bangkok. By Chris Greacen

Turbine Inlet Cooling: A promising option for increasing Thailand's electrical capacity. (PPT, 1.2 MB). By Chris Greacen

An emerging light: Thailand gives the go-ahead to distributed energy. (PDF, 383 KB) Cogeneration & On-Site Power Production Magazine. March/April, 2007. By Chris Greacen

Feed-in Tariffs: International experiences and recommendations for implementation in Thailand. (DOC, 1.1 MB). Chris Greacen and Detlef Loy. 2 Apr, 2006. A study for the Thai Joint Graduate School on Energy and Enviornment (JGSEE), commissioned by the Energy Planning and Policy Office (EPPO).